Eye, Retina - Gliosis

Image of retina gliosis in the eye from a female F344/N rat in a chronic study
Eye, Retina - Normal in a female F344/N rat from a chronic study. Normal retina (arrow), optic disc (D), and optic nerve (N) for comparison to Figure 2.
Figure 1 of 2
Image of retina gliosis in the eye from a female F344/N rat in a chronic study
Eye, Retina - Gliosis in a female F344/N rat from a chronic study. There are increased numbers of glial cells in the nerve fiber layer (arrow), optic disc (D), and optic nerve (N).
Figure 2 of 2
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comment:

Retinal gliosis ( Figure 2image opens in a pop-up window , compare to normal in Figure 1image opens in a pop-up window ), the proliferation of astrocytes, Müller cells, and/or microglia, can occur in various retinal layers with focal to diffuse distribution. It is characterized by increased numbers of glial cells in the retina. Retinal gliosis can occur as a primary change (generally of uncertain etiology) or as a feature to other retinal lesions (e.g., degeneration).

recommendation:

When occurring as a primary change, retinal gliosis should be diagnosed and assigned a severity grade. When retinal gliosis occurs as a morphologic feature or reactive sequela of another pathologic process (e.g., retinal degeneration), it should not be diagnosed separately (unless warranted by severity), but should be described in the pathology narrative.

references:

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Abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21177527

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Abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11397238

Ho G, Kumar S, Min XS, Kng YL, Loh MY, Gao S, Zhuo L. 2009. Molecular imaging of retinal gliosis in transgenic mice induced by kainic acid neurotoxicity. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50:2459-2464.
Full Text: http://www.iovs.org/content/50/5/2459.full

Jung HJ, Raine CS, Suzuki K. 1978. Schwann cells and peripheral nervous system myelin in the rat retina. Acta Neuropathol 44:245-247.
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Langmann T. 2007. Microglia activation in retinal degeneration. J Leukocyte Biol 81:1345-1351.
Full Text: http://www.jleukbio.org/content/81/6/1345.full

National Toxicology Program. 2012. NTP TR-571. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Kava Kava Extract (CAS No. 9000-38-8) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies). NTP, Research Triangle Park, NC.
Abstract: http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/36127

Seoane A, Espejo M, Pallàs M, Rodriguez-Farre E, Ambrosio S, Llorens J. 1999. Degeneration and gliosis in rat retina and central nervous system following 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile exposure. Brain Res 833:258-271.
Full Text: http://toxsci.oxfordjournals.org/content/88/2/456.full.pdf

Yanoff K, Zimmerman LE, Davis R. 1971. Massive gliosis of the retina. Int Ophthalmol Clin 11:211-229.

Yoshitomi K, Boorman GA. 1990. Eye and associated glands. In: Pathology of the Fischer Rat: Reference and Atlas (Boorman GA, Eustis SL, Elwell MR, Montgomery CA, MacKenzie WF, eds). Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 239-260.
Abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/9002563

Zeng H, Zhu X, Zhang C, Yang L-P, Wu L, Tso MOM. 2005. Identification of sequential events and factors associated with microglial activation, migration, and cytotoxicity in retinal degeneration in rd mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46:2992-2999.
Full Text: http://www.iovs.org/content/46/8/2992.full