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Eye, Retina - Hemorrhage

Image of retina hemorrhage in the eye from a female F344/N rat in a chronic study
Eye, Retina - Hemorrhage in a female F344/N rat from a chronic study. There are extravasated blood cells (arrow) in a detached and degenerate retina.
Figure 1 of 3
Image of retina hemorrhage in the eye from a female F344/N rat in a chronic study
Eye, Retina - Hemorrhage in a female F344/N rat from a chronic study (higher magnification of Figure 1). This detached and degenerate retina contains extravasated blood cells (arrow).
Figure 2 of 3
Image of retina hemorrhage in the eye from a female F344/N rat in a chronic study
Eye, Retina - Hemorrhage in a female F344/N rat from a chronic study (higher magnification of Figure 1). The hemorrhage (arrow) in this detached and degenerate retina is mainly in the inner layers.
Figure 3 of 3
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comment:

Hemorrhage ( Figure 1image opens in a pop-up window , Figure 2image opens in a pop-up window , and Figure 3image opens in a pop-up window ) is defined as extravasated blood cells (i.e., outside the blood vessels). In the retina, it is usually secondary to trauma, detachment, or inflammation. but can also result from pathology of the retinal vasculature due to metabolic disease or toxins.

recommendation:

Retinal hemorrhage should be diagnosed and assigned a severity grade when it is a primary finding. Retinal hemorrhage secondary to other lesions, such as detachment or inflammation, should not be diagnosed separately (unless warranted by severity) but should be described in the pathology narrative.

references:

Kakehashi A, Saito Y, Mori K, Sugi N, Ono R, Yamagami H, Shinohara M, Tamemoto H, Ishikawa SE, Kawakami M, Kanazawa Y. 2006. Characteristics of diabetic retinopathy in SDT rats. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 22:455-461.
Full Text: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/dmrr.638/full

Kuno H, Usui T, Eydelloth RS, Wolf ED. 1991. Spontaneous ophthalmic lesions in young Sprague-Dawley rats. J Vet Med Sci 53:607-614.
Abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10845604

National Toxicology Program. 1997. NTP TR-450. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Tetrafluoroethylene (CAS No. 116-14-3) in F344 Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Inhalation Studies). NTP, Research Triangle Park, NC.
Abstract: http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/6044

Nyska A, Maronpot RR, Ghanayem BI. 1999. Ocular thrombosis and retinal degeneration induced in female F344 rats by 2-butoxyethanol. Hum Exp Toxicol 18:577-582.
Abstract: http://het.sagepub.com/content/18/9/577.abstract

Ramos M, Reilly CM, Bolon B. 2011. Toxicological pathology of the retina and optic nerve. In: Fundamental Neuropathology for Pathologists and Toxicologists (Bolon B, Butt MT, eds). Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, 385-412.
Abstract: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9780470939956.ch24/summary

Silva-Araújo AL, Tavares MA, Patacao MH, Carolino RM. 1996. Retinal hemorrhages associated with in utero exposure to cocaine: Experimental and clinical findings. Retina 16:411-418.
Abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8912968

NTP is located at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, part of the National Institutes of Health.