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  • Urinary Bladder - Hemorrhage

    Image of hemorrhage in the urinary bladder from a female F344/N rat in a chronic study
    Hemorrhage associated with inflammation, from a female F344/N rat in a chronic study.
    Figure 1 of 2
    Image of hemorrhage in the urinary bladder from a male F344/N rat in a chronic study
    Hemorrhage of undetermined pathogenesis from a male F344/N rat in a chronic study.
    Figure 2 of 2
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    comment:

    Hemorrhage can be seen anywhere in the bladder. It is commonly associated with inflammation, calculi, or the presence of tumors ( Figure 1image opens in a pop-up window and Figure 2image opens in a pop-up window ). Perimortem hemorrhage can be differentiated by the lack of any concurrent lesions, such as edema, inflammation, or hemosiderin.

    recommendation:

    Hemorrhage is usually a secondary finding and should not be diagnosed unless it is a major component of the overall lesion and important in the pathogenesis of the lesion. Perimortem hemorrhage should not be diagnosed.

    references:

    Frazier KS, Seely JC, Hard GC, Betton G, Burnett R, Nakatsuji S, Nishikawa A, Durchfeld-Meyer B, Bube A. 2012. Proliferative and non-proliferative lesions in the rat and mouse urinary system. Toxicol Pathol 40:14S-86S.
    Abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22637735