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Urinary Bladder - Vacuolation, Cytoplasmic

Image of vacuolization, cytoplasmic in the urinary bladder from a female B6C3F1 mouse in a subchronic study
Cytoplasmic vacuolation: clear vacuoles are present in urothelial �umbrella� cells from a male B6C3F1 mouse in a 28-day study.
Figure 1 of 3
Image of vacuolization, cytoplasmic in the urinary bladder from a female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rat in a chronic study
Cytoplasmic vacuolation of more superficial urothelial cells from a female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rat in a chronic study.
Figure 2 of 3
Image of vacuolization, cytoplasmic in the urinary bladder from a male F344/N rat in a chronic study
Diffuse artifactual vacuolation of basal urothelial cells from a male F344/N rat in a chronic study.
Figure 3 of 3
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comment:

Cytoplasmic vacuolation of urothelial cells is regarded as a nonspecific lesion that may occur secondary to cell injury by a variety of bladder toxicants or carcinogens. It may or may not be related to degeneration. Vacuolation is usually noted in “umbrella” cells or more superficial urothelial cells ( Figure 1image opens in a pop-up window and Figure 2image opens in a pop-up window ). Uniform urothelial cell vacuolation (typically within the basal cell layer) may be an artifact resulting from autolysis ( Figure 3image opens in a pop-up window ).

recommendation:

Cytoplasmic vacuolation should be diagnosed and given a severity grade.

references:

Frazier KS, Seely JC, Hard GC, Betton G, Burnett R, Nakatsuji S, Nishikawa A, Durchfeld-Meyer B, Bube A. 2012. Proliferative and non-proliferative lesions in the rat and mouse urinary system. Toxicol Pathol 40:14S-86S.
Abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22637735