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  • Eye - Phthisis Bulbi

    Image of phthisis bulbi in the eye from a female B6C3F1 mouse in a chronic study
    Eye - Phthisis bulbi in a female B6C3F1 mouse from a chronic study. Phthisis bulbi ("end-stage" eye) is characterized by prominent shrinkage of the globe with marked structural displacement and disorganization
    Figure 1 of 4
    Image of phthisis bulbi in the eye from a female B6C3F1 mouse in a chronic study
    Eye - Phthisis bulbi in a female B6C3F1 mouse from a chronic study. The globe is shrunken with marked structural displacement and disorganization.
    Figure 2 of 4
    Image of phthisis bulbi in the eye from a female B6C3F1 mouse in a chronic study
    Eye - Phthisis bulbi in a female B6C3F1 mouse from a chronic study. There is marked shrinkage of the globe (arrow) with marked structural displacement and disorganization.
    Figure 3 of 4
    Image of phthisis bulbi in the eye from a female B6C3F1 mouse in a lifetime study
    Eye - Phthisis bulbi in a female B6C3F1 mouse from a lifetime study. The globe is shrunken (arrow) with marked structural displacement and disorganization and compressed by a large Harderian gland carcinoma (H).
    Figure 4 of 4
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    comment:

    Phthisis bulbi ( Figure 1image opens in a pop-up window , Figure 2image opens in a pop-up window , Figure 3image opens in a pop-up window , and Figure 4image opens in a pop-up window ) is the diagnostic term used for the "end-stage" eye morphology resulting from severe injury from various causes, such as trauma, inflammation, excess exposure to ionizing radiation or ambient light, or physical compression by space-occupying orbital masses, such as neoplasms of the Harderian gland ( Figure 4image opens in a pop-up window ). Phthisis bulbi is characterized by prominent shrinkage of the globe with marked displacement and disorganization of ocular structures.

    recommendation:

    Phthisis bulbi should be diagnosed as present without assignment of a severity grade. Changes in the various ocular subtopographies should not be diagnosed separately as they are included in the collective diagnostic term "phthisis bulbi." If an inciting cause (e.g., a foreign body) is present, it should be diagnosed separately, and the association between the two lesions should be described in the narrative.

    references:

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    Geiss V, Yoshitomi K. 1991. Eyes. In: Pathology of the Mouse: Reference and Atlas (Maronpot RR, Boorman GA, Gaul BW, eds). Cache River Press, Vienna, IL, 471-489.
    Abstract: http://www.cacheriverpress.com/books/pathmouse.htm

    Hazlett LD, Rosen DD, Berk RS. 1978. Age-related susceptibility to Pseudomonas aeruginosa ocular infections in mice. Infect Immun 20:25-29.
    Full Text: http://iai.asm.org/content/20/1/25.full.pdf

    Newkirk KM, Chandler HL, Parent AE, Young DC, Colitz CMH, Wilkie DA, Kusewitt DF. 2007. Ultraviolet radiation-induced corneal degeneration in 129 mice. Toxicol Pathol 35:817-824.
    Full Text: http://tpx.sagepub.com/content/35/6/817.full

    National Toxicology Program. 1979. NTP TR-189. Bioassay of p-Chloroaniline for Possible Carcinogenicity (CAS No. 106-47-8). National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD.
    Abstract: http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/10109

    National Toxicology Program. 1989. NTP TR-351. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of para-Chloroaniline Hydrochloride (CAS No. 20265-96-7) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies). NTP, Research Triangle Park, NC.
    Abstract: http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/6963

    National Toxicology Program. 1992. NTP TR-410. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Naphthalene (CAS No. 91-20-3) in B6C3F1 Mice (Inhalation Studies). NTP, Research Triangle Park, NC.
    Abstract: http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/7700

    National Toxicology Program. 1992. NTP TR-411. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of C.I. Pigment Red 23 (CAS No. 6471-49-4)in F344 Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Studies). NTP, Research Triangle Park, NC.
    Abstract: http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/7702

    Rao GN. 1991. Light intensity-associated eye lesions of Fischer 344 rats in long-term studies. Toxicol Pathol 19:148-155.
    Abstract: http://tpx.sagepub.com/content/19/2/148.short

    Takase H, Yu C-R, Ham D-I, Chan C-C, Chen J, Vistica BP, Warousek EF, Durum SK, Egwuagu CE, Gery I. 2006. Inflammatory processes triggered by TCR engagement or by local cytokine expression: Differences in profiles of gene expression and infiltrating cell populations. J Leukocyte Biol 80:538-545.
    Abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16793919

    Whittum JA, McCulley JP, Niederkorn JY, Streilein JW. 1984. Ocular disease induced in mice by anterior chamber inoculation of herpes simplex virus. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 25:1065-1073.
    Abstract: http://www.iovs.org/content/25/9/1065.short

    Yoshitomi K, Boorman GA. 1990. Eye and associated glands. In: Pathology of the Fischer Rat: Reference and Atlas (Boorman GA, Eustis SL, Elwell MR, Montgomery CA, MacKenzie WF, eds). Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 239-260.
    Abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/9002563